A free and helpful starting point for anyone beginning research in the area of Muslim-Christian Studies


The bibliographies are put together by the CMCS Academic Team. They are designed simply to suggest a few balanced and stimulating works for any individual interested in reading more about specific areas and figures in Islam, Christianity and the Muslim-Christian interface. They represent a valuable resource, and new subject areas will be added periodically, so be sure to check back for any updates.


Ahmed Deedat


Ahmed Hoosen Deedat (1918-2005CE) founded the Islamic Propagation Centre International (IPCI). He developed the Comparative Religions Approach, using the Bible to attack Christianity in order to ‘demonstrate the truth of Islam’. His approach can be described as “Apologetics through Polemics”.

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Deedat’s own writings and a wide selection of his lectures and debates are available on the internet:

A high quality video collection of Sheikh Ahmed Deedat’s debates and lectures. 

The following books and articles all deal with aspects of Deedat’s life and work:

C. Ahmed, “The Wahubiri wa Kislamu (Preachers of Islam) in East Africa”, Africa Today 54.4 (2008) 3-18.

J. Chesworth, ‘Fundamentalism and Outreach Strategies in East Africa: Christian Evangelism and Muslim Da‘wa’, in Muslim-Christian Encounters in Africa, ed. B.J. Soares, (Leiden 2006) 159-186.

Id., The use of Scripture in Swahili tracts by Muslims and Christians in East Africa (Diss. Birmingham 2008).

Id., ‘Ahmed Deedat (1918-2005)’ Encyclopaedia entry in Encyclopedia of the Bible and its Reception, (de Gruyter forthcoming).

J. Gilchrist, Qur’an and Bible Series (rebuttals of booklets by Deedat).

M. Haron, “The Dynamics of Christian-Muslim Relations in South Africa (circa 1960-2000): From Exclusivism to Pluralism”, Muslim World 96.3, (2006) 423-468.

International Propagation Centre International.

B. Larkin, ‘Ahmed Deedat and the Form of Islamic Evangelism’, Social Text 96 Vol. 26:3 (2008) 101-121.

S. Sadouni, Islam <<minoritaire>>, diaspora et leadership en Afrique du Sud, (Diss. Aix en Provence 1997).

Id., ‘Le minoritaire sud-africain Ahmed Deedat, une figure originale de la da’wa’, Islam et sociétés au sud du Sahara 12 (1999) 149-170.

Id., ‘Ahmed Deedat et l’islam Indien en Afrique du Sud: Individualisme at transnationalisme Islamique’, Archives de sciences socials des religions 139 (2007) 101-118.

G. Vahed, ‘Obituary: Ahmed Hoosen Deedat 1918-2005’, Annual Review of Islam in South Africa 8 (2005) 88-92.

D. Westerlund, ‘Ahmed Deedat’s Theology: Apologetics through Polemics’ Journal of Religion in Africa 33.3 (2003) 263-278.

K. Zebiri, Muslims and Christians Face to Face (Oxford 1997).

The Gospel of Barnabas

Rashid-RidaThis document was translated into English from an Italian manuscript and published in 1907. It was also translated into Arabic very soon after its appearance in English, a project driven by Rashid Rida [pictured above]. This led to its being widely circulated, and becoming a point of contention between some Muslims and Christians as to whether it was a more authentic gospel than the canonical gospels found in the New Testament.

There is very extensive evidence that it is the product of a convert from Christianity to Islam from sometime during the second millennium. This evidence includes inaccuracies over geography and historical anachronisms. It also disagrees at points with Qur’anic teaching.The exact origin of the document is a matter of debate. The items listed below suggest a range of possibilities for its origins lying in Italy, Spain, Cyprus, or Istanbul.

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Ragg, L. & L. (tr.)  The Gospel of Barnabas (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907) [this translation is frequently reprinted without the Raggs’ critical introduction].

Secondary sources:

Ayoub, Mahmoud  ‘Muslim Views of Christianity: some modern examples’ in Islamochristiana 10 (1984), 49-70; reprinted in Ayoub, A Muslim View of Christianity, ed. Irfan Omar (Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 2007) [An example of a Muslim author’s rejection of the authenticity of the Gospel of Barnabas].

Koningsveld, P.S. v  ‘The Islamic Image of Paul and the Origin of the Gospel of Barnabas’ in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 20 (1996), 200-228 [suggests an Italian original, but written in Istanbul].

Leirvik, Oddbjørn:  ‘History as a Literary Weapon: The Gospel of Barnabas in Muslim-Christian Polemics’ in Studia Theologica – Nordic Journal of Theology, 56:1 (2002), 4-26

Pulcini, T.  ‘In the Shadow of Mount Carmel: the Collapse of the “Latin East” and the Origins of the Gospel of Barnabas’ in Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 12 (2001), 191-209 [argues for it originating from a monk on Cyprus who converted to Islam].

Ryad, U.  Islamic Reformism and Christianity: a critical reading of the works of Muhammad Rashid Rida and his associates (1898-1935) (Leiden: Brill, 2009)

Slomp, J.  ‘The Gospel in Dispute’ in Islamochristiana 4 (1978), 67-111.

——         ‘The “Gospel of Barnabas” in Recent Research’ in Islamochristiana 23 (1997), 81-109.

Sox, D.  The Gospel of Barnabas (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1984).

Wiegers, G.  ‘Muhammad as Messiah: A Comparison of the Polemical Works of Juan Alonso with the Gospel of Barnabas’ in Bibliotheca Orientalis (1995), 245-291 [argues for Italian origin].

A History of Christian views of the Qur’an

Selected titles on Christian views of the Qur’an.

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Primary Sources

Mar Timothy The Dialogue of the Patriarch Timothy I with Caliph Mahdi in N. Newman (ed.) The Early Christian-Muslim Dialogue: a collection of documents from the first three Islamic centuries. Translations with commentary (Hatfield, Pennsylvania, 1993), pp. 163-267.

Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa’s De Pace Fidei and Cribratio alkorani, tr. and analysis by Jasper Hopkins (Minneapolis, 1994).

Tisdall, W. The Original Sources of the Qur’an (SPCK, 1905)

Watt, W.M. Bell’s Introduction to the Qu’ran (Edinburgh 1977).

Secondary Sources

Bobzin, H. Der Koran im Zeitalter der Reformation (Stuttgart, 1995).

Burman, T. ‘Tafsir and Translation: Traditional Arabic Qur’ān Exegesis and the Latin Qur’āns of Robert of Ketton and Mark of Toledo’ in Speculum 73 (1998), pp. 703-32.

Burman, T. ‘Polemic, Philology and Ambivalence: Reading the Qur’an in Latin Christendom’ in Journal of Islamic Studies 15 (2004), pp. 181-209.

Burman, T. Readingthe Qur’an in Latin Christendom, 1140-1560 (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007).

Daniel, N. Islam: the Making of an Image (Oxford, 1997).

Ebied, R. & D. Thomas (Eds. & tr.) Muslim-Christian Polemic during the Crusades: The letter from the People of Cyprus and Ibn Abī Ṭālib al-Dimashqī’s Response (Leiden: Brill, 2005). [The letter from the People of Cyprus is a document which uses the Qur’an.]

Kritzeck, J. Peter the Venerable and Islam (Princeton, 1964).

Mossman, S. ‘The Western Understanding of Islamic Theology in the Later Middle Ages. Mendicant Responses to Islam from Riccoldo Da Monte Di Croce to Marquard von Lindau Recherches de Théologie et Philosophie médiévales 74 (2007), pp. 169-224.

Veerstegh, K. ‘Greek Translations of the Qur’an in Christian Polemics’ [re 9th century C.E.] in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Geselleschaft 141 (1991), pp. 52-68.

God in Islam and Christianity

Selected titles on Muslim and Christian views of God.

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Qur’anic starting points

Surah 1

Surah 2:255

Surah 30: 11-19

Surah 112

It is advisable to read the commentary on these verses.

Muslim writings on God

Falaturi, A., ‘How is human experience of God possible in spite of strict Islamic Monotheism?’ in Falaturi, A., Petuchowski, J.J. and Strolz, W. (eds) Three Ways to the One God, Burns and Oates, 1987, pp35-44.

Kader, A.A., ‘The Conception of God in Islam, Washington DC: The Islamic Centre, undated, excerpted in the World Religions Curriculum Development Center of Minneapolis’ The Islamic Tradition, Argos Communications, 1978, pp7-11.  Includes Al-Ghazzali’s famous ‘creed’.

Nasr, S.H., ‘God’, in S.H. Nasr (ed) Islamic Spirituality 1: Foundations, SCM, 1985, pp311-23. A helpful, well written overview.

Rahbar, D., God of Justice, E.J. Brill, 1960.  A PhD study on the character of God.
Sarwar, G., Islam – beliefs and teachings, Muslim Educational Trust, various editions, chapter 1.  A helpful starting point – basic beliefs written for Muslim secondary school children.

‘Academic’ writings on God in Islam

Rippin, A., ‘God’, chapter 14 of Rippin, A. (ed), The Blackwell Companion to the Qur’an, Blackwell, 2006.  Brief overview of some of the key ways in which the Qur’an describes God.

Comparisons of Muslim and Christian views of God

Chapman, C., Cross and Crescent, IVP, 2003 (3rd edition, I think).  Chapters 25 and 27 have brief but clear summaries of the key issues.

Glaser, I. ‘The concept of relationship as a key to the comparative understanding of Christianity and Islam’ , Themelios, vol 11 no 2, 1986, pp57-60,

Imad Shehadeh, ‘Do Muslims and Christians Believe in the same God?’ in Bibliotheca Sacra, vol 161, 2004, pp14-26. A textual, linguistic, historical and theological analysis in response to the claim by some Christians that Allah was an Arabian moon god.  Ideas are developed in ‘The predicament of Islamic Monotheism’, Bib Sac, vol 161, 2004, pp142-62.

The ‘Same’ God?

  1. Volf, Allah: a Christian response, Harper Collins, 2011
  2. Volf (ed), Do we worship the same God?, Eeerdmans, 2012.

Jacob Neusner, Baruch A. Levine, Bruce D. Chilton, V. Cornwell, Do Jews, Christians, and Muslims Worship the Same God?, Abingdon Press, 2012.

Two popular level books by non-Islamicists that take different stances

Durie, M., Revelation?  Do we believe in the same God?  City Harvest, 2006.

George, T., Is the Father of Jesus the God of Muhammad?, Zondervan, 2002.


  • Timothy C. Tennent, Theology in the Context of World Christianity: How the Global Church is Influencing the Way we Think about Theology, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007, pp. 25-51 [WH 230.042 TEN].* (includes bibliography).
  • Kenneth Cragg, The Call of the Minaret, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged, Maryknoll/Ibadan: Orbid/Daystar, 1985.
  • André Manaranche, Le Monothéisme Chrétien, Paris: Cerf, 1985.
  • Barth, Church Dogmatics I/2, §17.2.
  • Michael Nazir Ali, Frontiers in Muslim Christian Encounter, Oxford : Regnum Books, 1987.
  • Sherif, Faruq, A Guide to the Contents of the Qur’an, Reading: Garnet Publishing, 1995.
  • Ellul, Jacques, Islam et judéo-christianisme, Texte inédit, Préface A. Besançon, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2004.
  • Kateregga, Badru D. & David W. Shenk, Islam and Christianity: A Muslim and a Christian in Dialogue, Nairobi: Uzima Press, 1980.
  • Kraemer, Hendrik, The Christian Message in a Non-Christian World, second edition, London: Edinburgh House Press, 1946.
  • McDermott, Gerald, Can Evangelicals Learn from World Religions? Jesus, Revelation and Religious Traditions, Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2000.


Selected title on Shari’a law.

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Peters, R. , Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law (Cambridge: 2005)

This is the best place to start – a superb overview.

Kurzman, C., Liberal Islam (Oxford: 1998), pp. 3-26 on different visions of Shariah.

Rippin, A., Muslims: Their Beliefs and Practices, (various editions – look for second or third)chapter 6 on ‘Legal developments’.

An accessible primary source in English translation

Mālik ibn Anas (died 795 AD),  Al-Muwatta,

Going deeper:

Ali, K., Sexual Ethics and Islam:  Feminist reflections on Qur’an, Hadith and Jurisprudence, (Oxford: Oneworld, 2006).

Doi, A.R.I., Sharī‘ah: The Islamic Law, (London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1984)

A Nigerian’s account of the basis of Islamic law, with chapters detailing rulings on many aspects of life.

Haddad, Y. and Stowasser, B. (eds.) ,           Islamic Law and the Challenges of Modernity (Lanham, MD, 2004)

Has a useful introduction to papers that explore gender issues and how Islamic law functions in several Middle Eastern contexts.

Hallaq, W.B., A History of Islamic Legal Theories, (Cambridge: CUP, 1997)

Kamali, M., Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (Cambridge, 2000 revised edn.)

A more detailed account of the theoretical foundations of Islamic law.

Al-Qaradawi, Y., The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam, (American Trust Publications, undated).

A guide to living by a very influential writer.

Al-Sadr, M.B.,            Lessons in Islamic Jurisprudence, tr. R. Mottahedeh (Oxford 2003)

A Shi’ite perspective

Francis of Assisi and Islam

St. Francis and the SultanAlthough well-known for his love and care for creation, his life of simplicity and the Catholic order that now bears his name; Francis also has much to offer Muslim-Christian relations in his less well-known encounter with the Sultan of Egypt.

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The main sources on Francis’ visit to al-Kamil are Jacque de Vitry’s letter from Damietta (1220, Early Documents, vol I, pp. 580-581) and Historia Orientalis (1221-5, vol I, pp. 582-585); Thomas de Celano’s The Life of Francis (1228-9, vol I, pp. 229-231) and Bonaventure’s Major Legend of St Francis (1260-1263, vol II, pp. 602-604).

Very relevant is chapter 16 of Francis’ Regula Non Bullata, (1221), which gives instructions for friars who wish to preach to Muslims.

The accounts conflict, and most have hagiographic elements. A helpful analysis of the various sources and ways of interpreting them is in De Beer, F., ‘St Francis and Islam’, in F. McDonagh (trans), C. Duquoc and C. Floristan (eds), ‘St Francis today’, Concilium 149, NY: Sowbury Press, 1979, pp. 11-20.

A different analysis of the primary sources and their development is in “Francis of Assisi before the Sultan: Islam in Early Franciscan Writings (1219-1267)”, R. W. Lawrence, 2008, available via (Scroll down to final papers.)

C.A. Mallouhi, Waging Peace on Islam (Monarch, 2000) offers a helpful and moving reconstruction of events that has the great advantage of taking the Muslim accounts of al-Kamil seriously.

J. Hoeberichts, Francis and Islam (Illinois: Franciscan Press, 1997) offers an analysis not only of Francis’ visit to al-Kamil but also of chapter 16 of the Regula Non Bullata in its wider context.

B.Z. Kedar, Crusade and Mission (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), explores the links between mission to Muslims and the Crusades in medieval thinking. Chapter 3 compares Francis and Jacques de Vitry.

Islam and Muslim-Christian Relations in North Africa

Africa-MapThe nature of the subject dictates that this bibliography is dominated by books about relations between Muslim Egyptians and Copts in Egypt, and French Catholics and Muslim Algerians in Algeria, as these are the only countries in North Africa where in modern times large numbers of Muslims and Christians have coexisted in the same territory. The only other places in this region are Spain and Sicily in the Middle Ages.

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Abi-Mershed, Osama. “Uncivil War: Intellectuals and Identity Politics During the Decolonization of Algeria,” Journal of Islam and Muslim Christian Relations 14.2, 2003.

Anderson, Gerald H., Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions, New York, Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

Brooks, L.A.E., A Memoir of Sir John Drummond Hay, London, John Murray Albemarle Street, 1896.

[John Drummond Hay was British ambassador to Morocco for a period of about 50 years in the second half of the 19th century. This biography gives a vivid account of the difficulties besetting relations between Muslims and Christians in North Africa in the age of empire.]

Daniel, Robin, This Holy Seed: Faith, Hope and Love in the Early Churches of North Africa, UK, Tamarisk, 1993.

[A good introduction to the historical context of the modern church in North Africa. It contains a helpful bibliography of sources covering the hidden years.]

Entelis, John P., “Religion and politics in Algeria : Conflict or consensus?” Islam & Christian-Muslim Relations, 12.4, Routledge, 2001, pp.417-434.

Gairdner, W.H.T., The Rebuke of Islam, London, United Council for Missionary Education, 5th Edition, 1920.

[Previously entitled The Reproach of Islam. An attempt from a Christian perspective to compare the social impact of Christianity and Islam. Available online at: ]

Gairdner, W.H.T., D.M. Thornton, A Study in Missionary Ideals and Methods, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1908.

[This book contains material about the Copts.]

Glick, Thomas F., Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages, The Library Of Iberian Resources Online,

Griffith, Sidney H., The Church in the Shadow of the Mosque: Christians and Muslims in the World of Islam, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2008.

[Much of this book deals with the Eastern churches, but there is a section on the Coptic church.]

Hasan, Sana S., Christians versus Muslims in Modern Egypt: The Century-long Struggle for Coptic Equality, Oxford University Press, 2003.

Kiser, John W. The Monks of Tibhirine: Faith, Love, and Terror in Algeria, St Martin’s Press, 1982.

Lane, Edward William, The Manners & Customs of the Modern Egyptians, 1st edition 1836, Cosimo classics 2005.

[The author achieved a rare degree of identification with Arab culture during the age of empire. The appendix gives a brief account of the Copts in Egypt. Available online at:]

Maameri, Fatima, “Ottoman Algeria in Western Diplomatic history with Particular Emphasis on Relations with the United States of America, 1776-1816”, Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Letters and Languages, Dept of Languages, University Mentouri, Constantine, in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctorat d’etat.

[An example of how many North Africans see Muslim-Christian relations against the background of the reconquista. The thesis is available online at: ]

Mainardus, Otto F.A., Christians in Egypt: Orthodox, Catholic, and Protestant Communities Past and Present, Cairo, American University in Cairo Press, 2006.

McGee, Martin, OSB, Christian Martyrs for a Muslim People. New York/Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 2008.

Makari, Peter E., Conflict and Cooperation: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Egypt, New York, Syracuse University Press, 2007.

Merad, Ali, Christian Hermit in an Islamic World: A Muslim’s View of Charles de Foucauld, Paulist Press, 1999.

Metcalfe, Alexander, “The Muslims of Sicily under Christian Rule,” in The Society of Norman Italy. The Medieval Mediterranean. People, Economies and Cultures, 400-1500, Brill, Leiden, pp. 289-318. Available at:

Metcalfe, Alexander, Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily: Arabic speakers and the End of Islam, Oxford, RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Preminger, Marion Mill, The Sands of Tamanrasset: The Story of Charles de Foucauld, New York, Hawthorn, 1961.

Sharkey, Heather J., American Evangelicals in Egypt: Missionary Encounters in an Age of Empire, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008.

Stephanous, Andrea Zaki, Political Islam, Citizenship, and Minorities: The Future of Arab Christians in the Islamic Middle East,University Press of America, 2010.

[Again, this book has a section on the way the Coptic church has related to the Muslim state and compares the situation in Egypt to that in Lebanon.]

Virtue, David W., A Vision of Hope, Paternoster/Regnum, UK. 

[A biography of the Rev Dr Samuel Habib, an Egyptian Presbyterian minister who helped establish the Coptic Evangelical Organization for Social Services.]

Wellman, David Joseph, Sustainable Diplomacy: Ecology, Religion and Ethics in Muslim-Christian Relations, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

[This book is set in the context of modern Morocco-Spanish relations.]

Windler, Christian, “Diplomatic History as a Field for Cultural Analysis: Muslim-Christian Relations in Tunis, 1700-1840”, The Historical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, March 2001, pp.79-106.

Zebiri, Kate, “Relations between Muslims and Non-Muslims in the thought of Western-educated intellectuals”, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 6 (2), 1995, pp. 255-277.

Zwemer, Samuel Marinus, Raymond Lull, First Missionary to the Moslems, New York and London, Funk & Wagnalls Co., 1902, reprinted by Diggory Press, 2006.

[Raymond Lull was the first missionary to North Africa after the Muslim conquest.]

Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa

A selected introductory bibliography to the Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Azumah, J.A. The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa, (Oxford: Oneworld, 2001).

Bakari, M. & Yahya, S.S. (Eds.) Islam in Kenya, (Nairobi: Mewa Productions, 1995).

Bone, D.S. (Ed) Malawi’s Muslims: Historical Perspectives, (CLAIM: Blantyre, 2000).

Bruinhorst, G.C. van de, ‘Raise your voices and kill your animals’: Islamic Discourses on the Idd el Hajj and Sacrifices in Tanga (Tanzania), (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2007).

Chesworth, J. ‘The Church and Islam: Vyama Vingi (Multipartyism) and the Ufungamano Talks’, in B. Knighton (Ed.) Religion and Politics in Kenya: Essays in Honour of a Meddlesome Priest, (Palgrave: Basingstoke, 2009), pp.155-180.

Id., ‘Muslims and Christians in East Africa since Independence: Shifting Fortunes and Perceptions’, Journal of African Christian Thought 7 (2) 2004, pp. 39-47.

Eide, Ø.M. Revolution & Religion in Ethiopia 1974-1985, (Oxford: James Currey, 2000).

Hamdun, S. & King, N. Ibn Battuta in Black Africa, (Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishing, 2003).

Harrison, C. France and Islam in West Africa, 1860-1960, (Cambridge: CUP, 1988).

Hiskett, M.The Course of Islam in Africa, (Edinburgh: EUP, 1994).

Id., The Sword of Truth: The Life and Times of the Shehu Usuman dan Fodio, (Evanston: NWUP 1994).

Ibrahim, H.A. Sayyid ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi: A Study of Neo-Mahdism in the Sudan, 1859-1956, (Leiden: Brill, 2004).

Insoll, T. The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa, (Cambridge: CUP, 2003).

Kane, O. Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria: A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition, (Leiden: Brill, 2003).

Kenny, J. The Spread of Islam through North to West Africa 7th-19th Centuries, (Lagos: Dominican Publishing, 2000).

Lewis, I.M. (Ed.) Islam in Tropical Africa (2nd Ed.), (London: Hutchinson, 1980).

Levtzion, N. & Pouwels, R.L. (Eds.) The History of Islam in Africa, (Oxford: Currey, 2000).

Loimeier, R. & Seesemann, S. (Eds.) The Global Worlds of the Swahili: Interfaces of Islam, Identity and Space in 19th and 20th Century East Africa, Berlin: Lit Verlag (2006).

Mandivenga, E.C. Islam in Zimbabwe, Gwere: Mambo Press (1983).

Mbillah, J. & Chesworth, J. (Eds.) From the Cross to the Crescent, Nairobi: PROCMURA (2004).

Mbogoni, L.E.Y. The Cross versus The Crescent: Religion and Politics in Tanzania from the 1880s to the 1990s Dar es Salaam: Mkukui wa Nyota (2005).

Njozi, H.M. Mwembechai Killings and the Political Future of Tanzania, Ottowa: Globalink Communications (2000).

Id., Muslims and the State in Tanzania, Dar es Salamm: DUMT (2003).

Oded, A. Religion and Politics in Uganda, Nairobi: EAEP (1995).

Id., Islam and Politics in Kenya, London: Lynne Riennar Publishers Inc. (2000).

Pouwels, R.L. Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1987).

Robinson, D. Muslim Societies in African History, Cambridge: CUP (2004).

Sanneh, L. Piety and Power: Muslims and Christians in West Africa, Maryknoll: Orbis (1996).

Simpson, E. & Kresse, K. (Eds.) Struggling with History: Islam and Cosmopolitanism in the Western Indian Ocean, London: Hurst (2007).

Soares, B. (Ed.) Muslim-Christian Encounters in Africa, Leiden & Boston: Brill (2006).

Soares, B. & Otayek, R. (Eds.) Islam and Muslim Politics in Africa, New York: Palgrave Macmillan (2007).

Tayob, A. Islam in South Africa: Mosques, Imams and Sermons, Gainesville: University Press of Florida (1999).

Trimingham, J.S. Islam in the Sudan, London: OUP (1949).

Id., Islam in Ethiopia, Oxford: OUP (1952).

Id., A History of Islam in West Africa, Oxford: OUP (1962).

Id.,Islam in East Africa (2nd Ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press (1968).

Id., The Influence of Islam upon Africa (2nd Ed.), London: Longman (1968).

Umar, M.S. Islam and Colonialism: Intellectual Responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British Colonial Rule, Leiden: Brill (2006).

Westerlund, D. & Rosander, E.E. (Eds.) African Islam and Islam in Africa, London: Hurst (1997).

History of Muslim Views of the Bible

A selected introductory bibliography to the history of Muslim views of the Bible.

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Primary Sources

‘Alī al-Ṭabarī The Book of Religion and Empire, tr. A. Mingana (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1922).

al-A ‘ẓamī, M. The History of the Qur’anic Text (Leicester: UK Islamic Academy, 2003).

[Pseudo?] al-Ghazālī Al-Radd al-jamīl li-ilāhiyyat ‘Īsā bi-ṣarīḥ al-injīl [‘The Fitting Refutation of the Divinity of Jesus on the Evidence of the Gospel] . Arabic text with French translation available in R. Chidiac Une Réfutation Excellente de la divinité de Jésus-Christ d’après le texte meme de l’évangile (Paris: J. Vrin, 1939).

Ibn Ḥazm Al-Faṣl fi’l-milal wa’l-ahwā’ wa’l-niḥal, 3 vols. (Beirut: Dār al- Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya, 2007).

Ibn Khaldūn Al-Muqaddimah [‘The Introduction’] Arabic text in Prolégomènes, ed. M. Quatremère, 3 vols. (Paris: B. Duprat, 1858); English translationThe Muqaddimah, tr. F. Rosenthal, 3 vols. (Princeton: PUP, 1958/1967 2nd edition).

Ibn Sīnā Al-Aḍḥawiyya fi’l-ma‘ād, ed. Hasan ‘Āṣī (Beirut: al- mu’assassat al-jāmi‘īat al-dirāsāt, 1984); see translation of comment on Bible in F.Rahman, Prophecy in Islam (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958), p. 44.

Ibn Taymiyya A Muslim Theologian’s Response to Christianity, tr. T. Michel (Delmar, N.Y.: Caravan Books, 1984).

al-Juwaynī Shifā al-ghalīl. Arabic text and French translation in M. Bouyges (ed.) Textes Apologétiques de Guwainī (Beirut: Dar El-Machreq, 1968).

Kairanvi, M.R. Izhar-ul-Haq: The Truth Revealed, Parts 1, 2 and 3, tr. M. Raazi (London: TaHa, 2003)

Khan, Sayyid Ahmad The Mahomedan Commentary on the Holy Bible, Genesis I- IX (Aligarh: Privately Published, 1865).

Saeed, A. ‘The Charge of Distortion of Jewish and Christian Scriptures’ Muslim World 92 (2002), pp 419-36.

—— The Qur’an: an Introduction, Chapter 8, ‘The Qur’an and Other Scriptures’ (London: Routledge, 2008).

Secondary Sources

Accad, M. ‘The Ultimate Proof-Text: The Interpretation of John 20.17 in Muslim-Christian Dialogue (Second/Eighth-Eight/Fourteenth Centuries)’ in D. Thomas (ed.) Christians at the Heart of Islamic Rule (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003), pp. 199-214.

Adang, C. Muslim Writers on Judaism and the Hebrew Bible from Ibn Rabban to Ibn Hazm (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996).

Griffith, S. ‘Arguing from Scripture: the Bible in the Christian/Muslim Encounter in the Middle Ages’ in T. Hefferman and T. Burman (eds.) Scripture and Pluralism: Reading the Bible in the Religiously Plural Worlds of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2005), pp. 29- 58.

Lazarus-Yafeh, L. Intertwined Worlds (Princeton: PUP,1992).

McAuliffe, J. ‘The Qur’anic Context of Muslim Bible Scholarship’ in Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 7 (1996), pp. 141-55.

Nickel, G. ‘Early Muslim Accusations of Tahrīf: Muqātil ibn Sulaymān’s Commentary on Key Qur’anic Verses’ in D. Thomas (ed.),The Bible in Arab Christianity (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2007).

Saleh, W. ‘A Fifteenth-Century Muslim Hebraist: al-Biqā‘ī and His Defense of Using the Bible to Interpret the Qur’ān’ in Speculum 83 (2008), pp. 629-54.

—— In Defense of the Bible: a critical edition and an introduction to al- Biqā‘ī’s Bible Treatise (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2008).

Thomas, D. ‘The Bible and the Kalām’ in D. Thomas (ed.) The Bible in Arab Christianity (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2007), pp. 175-91.

—— ‘The Bible in Early Muslim-Christian Polemic’ in Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 7 (1996), pp. 29-38.

Tsadik, D. ‘Religious Disputations of Imāmī Shī‘īs Against Judaism in the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’ in Studia Iranica 34, pp. 95- 134.

Wheeler, B. ‘”This is the Torah that God sent down to Moses”: Some Early Islamic Views of the Qur’an and Other Revealed Books’ in Graeco- Arabica 7-8 (2000), pp. 571-604.

Whittingham, M. ‘How Could so Many Christians be Wrong? The Role of Tawātur (Recurrent Transmission of Reports) in Understanding Muslim Views of the Crucifixion’ in Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 19 (2008), pp. 167-78.

Muslims and Jesus

A selected introductory bibliography on Jesus in Islam.

View Bibliography

Ayoub, M., ‘The miracle of Jesus: Muslim reflections on the divine word’, chapter 10 of I.A. Omar (ed), A Muslim View of Christianity: essays on dialogue by Mahmoud Ayoub, Orbis, 2007.

Cragg, K., Jesus and the Muslim: an exploration, George Allen & Unwin, 1985.

Khalidi, T., The Muslim Jesus: sayings and stories in Islamic literature, Harvard University Press, 2001.

Masood, R.W., The Mysteries of Jesus, Oxford: Sakina, 2000.

Moucarry, C., Faith to Faith: Christianity and Islam in dialogue, IVP, 2001.

Nurbakhsh, J., Jesus in the eyes of the Sufis, London: Khaiqahi-Nimatullahi Publications, 1983.

Parrinder, G., Jesus in the Qur’an, Oneworld Publications, 1965.

Ur-Rahim, M.A., Jesus, a Prophet of Islam, MWH London, 2nd ed 1979.

Sarwar, G., Islam – Beliefs and Teachings, Muslim Educational Trust, several editions, the story of Jesus in chapter 6.